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Royal Collection Trust/© Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II 2014

Parure with necklace, brooch and earrings

Overview

Creator: English (nationality)
Creation Date: 
late 16th c. with 17th and 19th c. additions
Materials: 
Enamelled gold, pearls, rubies and emeralds
RCIN 
65620
Reference(s): 
G&J 2008 284
Acquirer: Queen Mary, consort of King George V, King of the United Kingdom (1867-1953), when Queen Consort (1910-36)
Provenance: 
Given by Mary, Queen of Scots to her attendant, Mary Seton. Mary Seton; by descent to Archibald William, 13th Earl of Eglinton (1812-61); by whom bequeathed to his daughters, Egidia, Sybil and Hilda; by whom sold Christie's 22 February 1894 (lot 69). Acquired by Algernon Borthwick, 1st Baron Glenesk (1830-1908); by descent to his daughter, Lilias Countess Bathurst (d.1965); by whom presented to Queen Mary on the Silver Jubilee, May 1935
Description:

The necklace and earrings are part of a parure together with a brooch.

The necklace consists of a principal gold element with opaque white, pale-blue, light-green and translucent blue and green enamel scrollwork set with pearls, emeralds and rubies. It is flanked by two enamelled cross-shaped links set with pearls and emeralds. The chain is composed of six S-shaped snakes in translucent dark-green enamel coiled around two pearls and flanked by opaque white enamel c-scrolls set with rubies; these alternate with 4 S-shaped scroll-like ornaments in opaque white and translucent blue enamel set with rubies.

The gold and white enamel brooch is composed of strapwork set with four pearls and a central ruby in a box setting.

The earrings were made to match the snake links of the chain and adapted by surmounting the earring hook with pearls and emeralds.

The dating of the pieces is complex and so is the history of the various parts. The brooch is the oldest part, judging by the setting and ornament (c.1580-1600).

The necklace is a composite piece. The oldest links are the four on either side of the clasp (four snake links and four smaller links); they are reminiscent of other late sixteenth century chain links of c.1600. The central part of the principal element and the star link to the left are probably somewhat later, c.1630. The scrolls surrounding the central part and the link to the right of it were probably added at the same time as they both lack enamel on the reverse. The remaining two snake-links, the other star link and the border of the principal element are of a later date.

The earrings were created in the nineteenth century.

A 1909 inventory in the Royal Collection, to which the parure has been added at a later date, states that the parure was given by Mary, Queen of Scots to her attendant Mary Seton. Mary Seton was a devoted attendant and friend of Mary, Queen of Scots, who shared many years of her exile. She was an excellent hairdresser whose services the Queen greatly admired

The chain was originally longer; it was a cotiere - a long chain worn by women caught up in the breast. Mary Seton’s descendant, Alexander Seton, 6th Earl of Eglinton (d.1661), removed four snake links and four S-ornaments from the chain on his succession to the earldom in 1612. The remaining sixteen snake links and sixteen white S’s set with rubies were passed to the Hon. Elizabeth Seton when she married William Hay of Drummelzier in 1694. The 1909 inventory states that this part of the chain was recorded in a Hay inventory in 1727.

The remainder of the jewels passed eventually to Alexander Seton’s descendant, Archibald William, 13th Earl of Eglinton (1812-1861). In the nineteenth century, the eight links from the original chain removed by the 6th Earl - four snakes and four S-ornaments - were incorporated into the present Neo-Renaissance necklace. This may have been for the celebrated Eglinton Tournament, held by the 13th Earl at Eglinton Castle in 1839

The parure remained in the possession of the Eglinton family until it was sold, together with the Eglinton family jewels, by the three daughters of the 13th Earl, Egidia, Sybil and Hilda, in 1894 at Christie’s on 22 February 1894 (lot 69). It was acquired by Algernon Borthwick, 1st Baron Glenesk (1830-1908) whose daughter, Lilias Countess Bathurst (d.1965), presented the parure to Queen Mary on the occasion of King George V’s Silver Jubilee in May 1935.

Text adapted from Ancient and Modern Gems and Jewels in the Collection of Her Majesty The Queen, London, 2008

Further details

Category: 
Works of Art